Copper - 29Cu: properties of free atoms
Copper atoms have 29 electrons and the shell structure is 126.96.36.199.
The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral copper is [Ar].3d10.4s1 and the term symbol is 2S1/2.
A representation of the atomic spectrum of copper.
Ionisation Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of copper is 118.4 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of copper are given below.
Effective Nuclear Charges
The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.
|4s||5.84||4p||(no data)||4d||(no data)||4f||(no data)|
|5s||(no data)||5p||(no data)||5d||(no data)|
|6s||(no data)||6p||(no data)|
These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:
- E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
- E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.
Electron binding energies
|Label||Orbital||eV [literature reference]|
|L I||2s||1096.7 |
|L II||2p1/2||952.3 |
|L III||2p3/2||932.7 |
|M I||3s||122.5 |
|M II||3p1/2||77.3 |
|M III||3p3/2||75.1 |
I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).
- J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
- M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
- Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
- D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
- J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.