Nickel - 28Ni: properties of free atoms
Nickel atoms have 28 electrons and the shell structure is 188.8.131.52.
The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral nickel is [Ar].3d8.4s2 and the term symbol is 3F4.
A representation of the atomic spectrum of nickel.
Ionisation Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of nickel is 112 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of nickel are given below.
Effective Nuclear Charges
The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.
|4s||5.71||4p||(no data)||4d||(no data)||4f||(no data)|
|5s||(no data)||5p||(no data)||5d||(no data)|
|6s||(no data)||6p||(no data)|
These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:
- E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
- E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.
Electron binding energies
|Label||Orbital||eV [literature reference]|
|L I||2s||1008.6 |
|L II||2p1/2||870 |
|L III||2p3/2||852.7 |
|M I||3s||110.8 |
|M II||3p1/2||68 |
|M III||3p3/2||66.2 |
I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).
- J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
- M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
- Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
- D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
- J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.