Chemical reactions of the elements
Reaction of bismuth with air
Upon heating, bismuth reacts with oxygen in air to form the trioxide bismuth(III) oxide, Bi2O3. The flame is bluish white.
4Bi(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Bi2O3(s)
Reaction of bismuth with water
At red heat, bismuth reacts with water to form the trioxide bismuth(III) oxide, Bi2O3.
2Bi(s) + 3H2O(g) → Bi2O3(s) + 3H2(g)
Reaction of bismuth with the halogens
Bismuth reacts with fluorine, F2, to form the pentafluoride bismuth(V) fluoride.
2Bi(s) + 5F2(g) → 2 BiF5(s) [white]
Bismuth reacts under controlled conditions with the halogens fluorine, F2, chlorine, Cl2, bromine, Br2, and iodine, I2, to form the respective trihalides bismuth(III) fluoride, BiF3, bismuth(III) chloride, BiCl3, bismuth(III) bromide, BiBr3, and bismuth(III) iodide, BiI3.
2Bi(s) + 3F2(g) → 2BiF3(s) 
2Bi(s) + 3Cl2(g) → 2BiCl3(s) 
2Bi(s) + 3Br2(g) → 2BiBr3(s) 
2Bi(s) + 3I2(g) → 2BiI3(s) 
Reaction of bismuth with acids
Bismuth dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4, or nitric acid, HNO3, to form solutions containing Bi(III). The sulphuric acid reaction produces sulphur(IV) dioxide gas. With hydrochloric acid in the presence of oxygen, bismuth(III) chloride is produced.
4Bi(s) + 3O2(g) + 12HCl(aq) → 4BiCl3(aq) + 6H2O(l)
Reaction of bismuth with bases
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