โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Phosphorus
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ็ฃท
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Fosfor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Phosphore
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Phosphor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื–ืจื—ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Fosforo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒชใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Fósforo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะคะพัั„ะพั€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Fósforo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Fosfor

Phosphorus: the essentials

Phosphorus atoms have 15 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.5. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral phosphorus is [Ne].3s2.3p3 and the term symbol of phosphorus is 4S3/2.

Phosphorus: description  

Phosphorus is commonly misspelled "phosphorous". It is an essential component of living systems and is found in nervous tissue, bones and cell protoplasm. Phosphorus exists in several allotropic forms including white (or yellow), red, and black (or violet). White phosphorus has two modifications. Ordinary phosphorus is a waxy white solid. When pure, it is colourless and transparent. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulphide. It catches fire spontaneously in air, burning to P4O10, often misnamed as phosphorus pentoxide. When exposed to sunlight, or when heated in its own vapour to 250°C, it is converted to the red variety. This form does not ignite spontaneously and it is a little less dangerous than white phosphorus. The red modification is fairly stable and sublimes with a vapour pressure of 1 atmosphere at 417°C.


This sample is from The Elements Collection, an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.

Phosphorus: physical properties

More physical properties...

Phosphorus: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Phosphorus: atom sizes

More atomc size properties...

Phosphorus: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Phosphorus: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Phosphorus: abundances

More geological data...

Phosphorus: crystal structure

P crystal structure
The solid state structure of phosphorus is: triclinic.

More crystallographic data...

Phosphorus: biological data

Phosphorus is a key component of biological molecules such as DNA and RNA. Phosphorus is a component of bones, and teeth, and many other compounds required for life. Chronic poisoning of people working unprotected with white phosphorus leads to necrosis of the jaw ("phossy-jaw").

More biological data...

Phosphorus: uses

Uses...

Phosphorus: reactions

Reactions of phosphorus as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

View reactions of phosphorus...

Phosphorus: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of phosphorus where known.

View binary compounds...

Phosphorus: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of phosphorus halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

View compound properties...

Phosphorus: history

Phosphorus was discovered by Hennig Brand in 1669 at Germany. Origin of name: from the Greek word "phosphoros" meaning "bringer of light" (an ancient name for the planet Venus?).

More history...

Phosphorus: isotopes

Isotope abundances of phosphorus
Isotope abundances of phosphorus with the most intense signal set to 100%.

More isotope and NMR data...

Phosphorus: isolation

Isolation: originally, phosphorus was extracted from urine. However there is plenty of phosphorus in phosphate ores and those ores represent the usual source for commercially produced phosphorus. There is normally no need to make phosphorus in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially.

The usial route involves heating a phosphate with sand and carbon in an electric furnace. It is highly energy intensive.

2Ca3(PO4)2 + 6SiO2 + 10C (1500°C) → 6CaSiO3 + 10CO + P4

The reaction may proceed via "phosphorus pentoxide", P4O10.

2Ca3(PO4)2 + 6SiO2 + → 6CaSiO3 + P4O10

P4O10 + 10C → 10CO + P4