Yttrium: the essentials
Yttrium atoms have 39 electrons and the shell structure is 18.104.22.168.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral yttrium is [Kr].4d1.5s2 and the term symbol of yttrium is 2D3/2.
Yttrium has a silvery-metallic lustre. Yttrium turnings ignite in air. Yttrium is found in most rare-earth minerals. Moon rocks contain yttrium and yttrium is used as a "phosphor" to produce the red colour in television screens.
This sample is from The Elements Collection, an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.
Yttrium: physical properties
Yttrium: heat properties
- Melting point: 1799 [1526 °C (2779 °F)] K
- Boiling point: 3609 [3336 °C (6037 °F)] K
- Enthalpy of fusion: 20.5 kJ mol-1
Yttrium: atom sizes
- Atomic radius (empirical): 180 pm
- Molecular single bond covalent radius: 163 (coordination number 3) ppm
- van der Waals radius: 275 ppm
- Pauling electronegativity: 1.22 (Pauling units)
- Allred Rochow electronegativity: 1.11 (Pauling units)
- Mulliken-Jaffe electronegativity: (no data)
Yttrium: orbital properties
- First ionisation energy: 599.87 kJ mol‑1
- Second ionisation energy: 1179.40 kJ mol‑1
- Third ionisation energy: 1980.30 kJ mol‑1
Yttrium: crystal structure
Yttrium: biological data
- Human abundance by weight: (no data) ppb by weight
Yttrium has no biological role.
Reactions of yttrium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.
Yttrium: binary compounds
Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of yttrium where known.
Yttrium: compound properties
Bond strengths; lattice energies of yttrium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.
Yttrium: historyYttrium was discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794 at Finland. Origin of name: named after the village of "Ytterby" near Vaxholm in Sweden.
Isolation: yttrium metal is available commercially so it is not normally necesary to make it in the laboratory. Yttrium is found in lathanoid minerals and the extraction of the yttrium and the lanthanoid metals from the ores is highly complex. Initially, the metals are extractedas salts from the ores by extraction with sulphuric acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Modern purification techniques for these lanthanoid salt mixtures involve selective complexation techniques, solvent extractions, and ion exchange chromatography.
Pure yttrium is available through the reduction of YF3 with calcium metal.
2YF3 + 3Ca → 2Y + 3CaF2